Warren Sturgis McCulloch (November 16, 1898 – September 24, 1969) was an American neurophysiologist and cybernetician, known for his work on the foundation for certain brain theories and his contribution to the cybernetics movement.
Neural network modelling
In the 1943 paper they attempted to demonstrate that a Turing machine program could be implemented in a finite network of formalneurons, (in the event, the Turing Machine contains their model of the brain, but the converse is not true) that the neuron was the base logic unit of the brain. In the 1947 paper they offered approaches to designing “nervous nets” to recognize visual inputs despite changes in orientation or size.
From 1952 he worked at the Research Laboratory of Electronics at MIT, working primarily on neural network modelling. His team examined the visual system of the frog in consideration of McCulloch’s 1947 paper, discovering that the eye provides the brain with information that is already, to a degree, organized and interpreted, instead of simply transmitting an image.
McCulloch also posited the concept of “poker chip” reticular formations as to how the brain deals with contradictory information in a democratic, somatotopical neural network. His principle of “Redundancy of Potential Command” was developed by von Forster and Pask in their study of Self-organization.
In the face of McCulloch’s arguments that living beings are nothing but highly complex machines, Kroitor insists that there is something more: “Many people feel that in the contemplation of nature and in communication with other living things, they become aware of some kind of force, or something, behind this apparent mask which we see in front of us.
All of these years later, it’s quite fitting that Chomsky, now 82 years old, would pay a visit to Occupy Boston and deliver a talk in the Howard Zinn Memorial Lecture Series. Why has our political system become more responsive to corporations than citizens? How has wealth become increasingly concentrated in the hands of an ever smaller elite — a plutocracy, to put it simply? And why do billionaire hedge fund managers enjoy a lower tax rate than maligned school teachers and pretty much everyone else? Chomsky explains how we got to this point, and what’s to be done about it. Find his talk in three parts: Part 1 (above), Part 2 and Part 3. via Dangerous Minds.
The functionality of the human brain is quantifiable in terms of technology that we can build in the near future.
Medical advancements make it possible for a significant number of his generation (Baby Boomers) to live long enough for the exponential growth of technology to intersect and surpass the processing of the human brain.
Kurzweil’s speculative reasoning and selective use of growth indicators has been heavily debated and challenged. (See criticisms at Technological Singularity) In response to this, in the last chapter he gives responses to some of the criticisms he has received.
Mainstream audiences tend to think of Noam Chomsky as a sharp political commentator, but scholars know him as the heavily influential MIT linguist.
His “generative enterprise” strategy for approaching the subject blended cognitive science with language studies. In The Architecture of Language, Chomsky traces its history, tenets and the way it shape the field forever.
Turkle also explores the psychological and societal impact of such “relational artifacts” as sociable robots, and how these and other technologies are changing attitudes about human life and concepts about what it means for something to be alive.