Originating in Philip K Dick’s novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?, the Voight-Kampff machine or device (spelled Voigt-Kampff in the book) also appeared in the book’s screen adaptation, the 1982 science fiction film Blade Runner.
The Voight-Kampff is a polygraph-like machine used by the LAPD’s Blade Runners to assist in the testing of an individual to see whether they are a replicant or not. It measures bodily functions such as respiration, heart rate and eye movement in response to emotionally provocative questions.
The Voight-Kampff machine is perhaps analogous to (and may have been partly inspired by) Alan Turing‘s work which propounded an artificial intelligence test — to see if a computer could convince a human (by answering set questions, etc.) that it was another human.